How we report greenhouse gases

Skanska´s ambition to minimize greenhouse gas emissions often leads to improving efficiency in the Group´s operations, thus helping lower costs.

Greenhouse gas reporting

Skanska’s greenhouse gas reporting covers all Business Units. We measure carbon emissions in accordance with the Greenhouse Gas Protocol and apply the financial control approach. Skanska Group have been reporting greenhouse gas since 2009 and has chosen 2015 as a base year for its reduction targets for scope 1 and 2. Activity data is based on invoiced data, models using invoiced data, real-time meters or data as reported by suppliers. Energy conversion is done using publicly available conversion factors and emission factors from open databases like International Energy Agency (IEA), UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs(DEFRA), and Reliable Disclosure Systems for Europe (RE-DISS) are applied. Greenhouse gases included in the reported carbon inventory are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs) and sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) are not applicable based on Skanska’s operations and current scope of reporting. Biogenic emissions of CO2 from the combustion of biofuel and biomass are reported separately from the gross direct (scope 1) greenhouse gas emissions as Outside of scope.

Emissions data is subject to inherent uncertainties due to incomplete scientific knowledge used to determine emission factors and resulting effects on measurements and estimations.

A limited assurance engagement of the Skanska greenhouse gas emission inventory is undertaken by Skanska's auditors.

Carbon emissions from our operations

Direct (scope 1) and indirect (scope 2) emissions
expressed in tonnes carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e)


Tonnes CO2e 2019  2018  2017 2016 2015
Scope 1 212,609 275,173 275,537 312,800 322,325
Scope 2 Location-based method 42,987 36,824 55,464 52,704 72,957
Market-based method 78,069 57,187 71,389 73,300 80,334
Greenhouse gas emission inensity1   1.64 1.95 2.16 2.55 -
Outside of scope2   20,078 7,002      

1 Scope 1 and 2 marketbased/MSEK Revenue, according to segment reporting.
2 Outside of scopes is the direct carbon dioxide (CO2) impact of burning biomass and biofuels.

Direct emissions (Scope 1)

Emission factors used for Skanska’s scope 1 emissions are derived from UK Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy greenhouse gas conversion factors for company reporting, UK Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs (Defra) from Greenhouse Gas Protocol V1.3. The Global Warming Potential (GWPs) used in the calculation of CO2e are based on the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) over a 100-year period.

Energy indirect emissions (Scope 2)

Skanska’s scope 2 emissions are calculated and presented in accordance with the Greenhouse Gas Protocol Scope 2 Guidance, applying both the location-based and market-based methods. Emission factors used for the location-based approach are derived from International Energy Agency (IEA, 2014) using the IPCC AR4 as well as bespoke global warming potential rates.

Indirect emissions from value chain activities (Scope 3)

Scope 3 is an optional reporting category for other indirect emissions that are a consequence of Skanska’s activities, but occur from sources not owned or controlled by us.

A selection of the GHG Protocols 15 scope 3 categories are reported. Categories included are pur¬chased goods and services including materi¬als as cement, concrete, steel, asphalt, bitu¬men, sand, gravel and stone, business travel including air travel, car travel and train travel, employee commuting including fuels used for commuting and upstream trans-portation and distribution including fuels purchased by subcontractor.